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Distance Education At Trinity School Of Apologetics And Theology
In this chapter we will look at the evolution of Animals and Man. We have purposely kept the presentation in this lesson simple. If you are interested in a more technical study of the subject, you can get that either from our advanced publications on Evolution/Creation, or from the references (books and articles) mentioned in the Bibliographies.
The Evolution Of Animals: It has been claimed that all animals seen today have evolved from a common ancestor. If this hypothesis is correct, then the fossils should produce supporting evidence.
Evolutionists widely believe that all plant and animal life have developed from the original and common ancestor through gradual changes in numerous generations. Thus one kind of creature, when evolving into another, should give rise to numerous intermediate creatures. And this is the acid test for evolution: if living creatures have evolved one from another, then the fossil record should demonstrate such intermediate creatures.
Fossils are the remains of living organisms from the past. This includes the remains of plants, animals and man. These remains include bones, teeth leaves and even complete animals and trees. Most of them, though not all, have already become rock-like .
Fossils are formed when animals or plants are buried suddenly. The atoms of this covering material then replace this animal or plant atom-by-atom. Eventually the original creature is gone and a petrified (turned into stone) replica is left. For many investigations this rock-like fossil is as good as the original creature.
Not all fossils, however, are petrified. Many tree trunks and other such things are found preserved in coal deposits. Also many creature, specially insects, are found trapped in solidified fluids that oozed out of trees. (A lot of “amber” blocks have been discovered with such trapped creatures). Sometimes even the normal bodies of animals and humans are discovered that have not turned into stone nor decayed. Sometimes these are fully dried out bodies, but at other times (like in the case of Siberian mammoths) these are discovered with bodies almost as intact as when they were living. The mammoths were buried under snow, and their flesh was reportedly still edible (for dogs of the explorers) when they were discovered.
Fossils have been found both in isolation (scattered a few here and there) and also in large aggregates. “Fossil graveyards”, each containing millions or even billions of fossils have also been discovered all over the world.
The billions of fossils discovered so far give a good picture of life in the past. They furnish a visible record of the living world from the tiniest microscopic creature to the biggest and most giant dinosaurs.
Since the fossils provide a good, physical, and visible guide to life in the past, they should surely furnish the best evidence for evolution (if it has taken place).
If intermediate creatures have existed in the past, the fossil record should produce them. Since different kinds of fully developed creatures have been preserved, their intermediate forms should also be preserved. Further, since there would be numerous intermediate forms between any two well-developed creatures, the fossil record should produce uncountable intermediate creatures. This is more true today than in Darwin’s day when the fossil-record was relatively incomplete. Today, with billions of fossils discovered, the record is as complete as anyone might desire. Yet the fossils do not support evolution. Intermediate forms are still missing.
Even after a century and a half of frantic hunting, and even after discovering billions of fossils, the evolution-believing scientists were able to claim only a handballs of fossils as intermediates. Moreover, recent researches have discredited even these claims- leaving the evolution theory completely helpless. No wonder the secular scientists are publishing articles like “Why Darwinists no longer believe Darwinism”.
You might immediately wonder, “But my biology textbooks mention many intermediate fossils”. That’s true, they do mention a few fossils, but these handfuls of fossils are surprisingly few when one considers that they came by combing through billions of fossils. If the theory were true, the number of intermediates should exceed the number of final forms. Even the most generous concessions would bring their numbers only to millions not to a dozen or so !
This insignificant number is terribly shocking but what’s more, even these have been exposed to be non-intermediates. Some have even been exposed to be frauds. Take the well-publicized “Horse-evolution series”. They used to claim that the evolution of modern day horses is supported by several intermediate fossils. But biologists have recently established that this link is not reliable at all. They have discovered that some of the fossils making up this series do not belong at all to this series. Further, some of the fossils mentioned in this series do not even exist anywhere in the world — they seem to be just imaginary names added to the chain by ambitious evolutionists ! Fossil experts have shown that there is no fossil-evidence to support horse evolution.
Another example is “Archaeopteryx” the famous fossil link between reptiles and birds. Recent studies have shown that most of the “archie” fossils were tampered with to make them look authentic intermediate forms. But they were nothing but cleaver scientific frauds.
The scientific community itself has shown that the handfuls of the presumed intermediate fossils are not intermediates at all, some of them have been identified wrongly, others are frauds, and still others are even non existent. Today there is not even a single fossil that is accepted by the scientific community as an undisputed and established intermediate form.
Thus, contrary to the impression that many give you, the fossil record does not provide support to the evolution of animals. On the contrary, all animals and plants discovered as fossils are fully formed and developed which lends support to their creation and not evolution.
The Evolution Of Man: The evolution of man is a subject of great interest. According to the theory of evolution, man has descended from monkey-like creatures. You might have heard a lot about the “ape-man”. The general impression given to people is that an unbroken chain of fossils exists to demonstrate the evolution from monkey-like creatures. But this is an entirely false impression.
Fossils do not exist to prove human evolution ! About a century ago many people did think that some of the fossils that they discovered belong to the so-called ape-men, but today the scientific community itself has rejected them. Many have pointed out that the initial enthusiasm (and false belief) was generated by two things. First, there has been a high level of bias to establish every human-like and monkey-like fossil as “ape-man”. Second, most fossils were only fragmentary, made up of a few teeth and few other bones. Since almost every discovery produced less than ten per cent of the full skeleton of its owner, wrong labeling and interpretation was common. With time, however, the situation has changed.
Today scientists have dozens and even hundreds of complete skeletons belonging to some of them (the Neanderthal and Cro Magnon men). Also, the techniques of investigation, comparison, and analysis of human-like and monkey-like fossils have advanced very much. As a result the scientific community has discovered that none of the skeletons/bones/fragments come from monkey-man intermediates.
Scientists have now found that all the alleged ape-man fossils can be placed into four categories:
1-Fossils of cent per cent monkey-like creatures. (Australopithecus, Ramapithecus).
2-Fossils of cent per cent humans (Neanderthal Man, Cro Magnon man).
3-Fossils that were nothing but deceptions. (Piltdown Man, Nebraska Man, Java Man, etc.)
4-Fossils that were suppressed because they contradicted the theory of evolution. (Java skulls, Olmo man, Castnedolo man).
One beauty of science is it’s repetitive investigation. Nothing is beyond re-evaluation. Consequently all the alleged ape-man and monkey-human fossils have been coming under repetitive evaluation. As a result the fossil-experts themselves have concluded now that no fossil ever discovered has ever come from an ape-man. There is no evidence that man has evolved from lower animals.
If the hypothesis of evolution is correct, then it must be supported by fossils: billions of intermediate creatures should be discovered. But that has never been the case. All plants, animals, and humans discovered have been found to be fully developed and not intermediates.
The evolution-believing scientists were able to produce only a handfuls of alleged intermediate forms. But the scientific community itself has been re-evaluating these fossils. It is their own verdict that none of these alleged fossils furnish plant, animal, or monkey-human intermediates. Some of the highly acclaimed “intermediate” fossils have even been found to be forgeries.
Most biology textbooks still speak about intermediate fossils, and this is mainly due to two things. First it is because of the continuing bias towards the theory of evolution. (A lot of people would like to establish this hypothesis as a fact, even without considering proofs). Second, it is because once a hypothesis becomes a dogma then even the best and latest discoveries find it impossible to get into the textbooks. Textbooks have a tendency to remain generations behind the latest discoveries, specially in areas that involve human prejudices. However, you can discover these facts about plant, animal, and human evolution from scientific magazines and researched books. A list of some of these is furnished in this lesson for your information and use.
HERE IS WHAT DARWIN SAID BEFORE HIS BOOK WAS PUBLISHED …!!!
**** “You will be greatly disappointed (by the forthcoming book); it will be grievously too hypothetical. It will very likely be of no other service than collocating some facts; though I myself think I see my way approximately on the origin of the species. But, alas, how frequent, how almost universal it is in an author to persuade himself of the truth of his own dogmas.”
Charles Darwin, 1858, in a letter to a colleague regarding the concluding chapters of his Origin of Species. As quoted in ‘John Lofton’s Journal’, The Washington Times, 8 February 1984.
**** ‘In fact, evolution became in a sense a scientific religion; almost all scientists have accepted it and many are prepared to ‘bend’ their observations to fit in with it.’
H.S. Lipson, FRS (Professor of Physics, University of Manchester, UK), `A physicist looks at evolution’. Physics Bulletin, vol. 31,1980, p. 138.
**** ‘The fact of evolution is the backbone of biology, and biology is thus in the peculiar position of being a science founded on an unproved theory- is it them a science or a faith? Belief in the theory of evolution is thus exactly parallel to belief in special creation — both are concepts which believers know to be true but neither, up to the present, has been capable of proof.’
L, Harrison Matthews, FRS, Introduction to Darwin’s The Origin of Species, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1971,p,xi
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